Tuesday, November 26, 2013

R.F pad thickness calculation for 48" Hot tapping

R.F pad thickness calculation for 48" Hot tapping

see the calculation - click or copy the link below mention.


pressure loss calculation for Short radius Elbow - 48"

 pressure loss calculation for Short radius Elbow.

click or copy the link below mentioned.


Pipe wall thickness calculation as per ASME B31.4

Minimum Wall Thickness Calculation as per ASME B31.4 para. 404.1
1 General
The required thickness of pipe shall be equal to or greater than tn determined
in accordance with the following equation
tn  =  t  + A                                                          (1a)
2 Nomenclature
tn ; Nominal wall thickness satisfying requirements of pressure and allowance
Pi ; Internal design gauge pressure (psig)
D  ; Outside diameter of Pipe (in)
S  ; applicable allowable stress value (psi)
CA ; Corrosion allowance (in)
A  ; Additional thickness ; the sum of mechanical allowances
      (threading or grooving) plus corrosion allowances (in)
t  ; Pressure design thickness Only (in)
     t = (Pi x D) / (2 x S)                                        (2a)
3 Calculation
1)  CODE                                       ASME B 31.4
2)  Design Data
     - Material Spec.               :       API 5L Gr. X52   SAW     
     - Design Condition           :              Temperature  200  0 F
Pi  = 850 Psi g
CA = 0.125 inch =    3.2 mm
A  =  0  +  CA = CA = 0.125 inch
S   = 37450 Psi
3)  Result
NPS (in) 48

(D) Outside dia (in) 48      
(S) Allowable Stress (Psi) 37450      
(t) Thickness as per Eq. (2a) 0.5447      
(A) Additional Thickness 0.125      
(tn) Reqd. Min. Thk. = (t) + (A) 0.6697      
Selected Nominal Thickness (in) 0.6880      

Beam design details for laterally unsupported

Laterally Unsupported Beam Design

calculating  Bending Moment (M=W* x L2 / 8) 

                   Shear Force(V = W* x L / 2)

                   Section Modules(Z = M /(σbc or σbt))

Calculated Average Shear Stress ( ζva = V /(h x Tw))

Permissible Shear Stress(ζv = 0.4 x fy)

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Structural Basic informations

Structural Basic informations

Explain about Moment Connections and Shear Connections
Refering to the Bending and Rotation Effect of Eccrntric Force upon a Member or Joint is Called Moment
When Force is Coming on the Body towards Against and Opposite Each other is Called Shear

Difference between Shear and Moment Connections
Shear : Top and Bottom of the  Connection Member is not Weld
Moment : Top and Bottom of the  Connection Member is Weld

types of Moment and Shear Connections
Simple (Shear) Connections
Angle Cleat,Bolted Angle  Seat, Welded Angle Seat, Bearing Pad.
Moment Connections
Welded Beam Column, Bolted Moment End Plate, Haunched Beam End Plate,Flush Moment End Plate,Extended Moment Plate,Welded Flange Plate, Bolted Flange End Plate,

Typical Connection Details (Beam to Beam,Column to Column,Beam to Column, Bracing, Splice)

What is the types of Weld?
Fillet Weld,Groove Weld, Butt Weld,Bevel Weld,Stitch Weld,Plug Weld,Seam Weld, Spot Weld,Edge Weld.

How to Calculate the Weld Size?
Minimum Material Thickness x 0.85 (mm)
Minimum Material Thickness / 2 – 1/16” (inches)

What is the Purpose of Weld?
Join together (metal pieces or parts) by heating the surfaces to the point of melting with a blowpipe, electric arc, etc...

What is the Processing of Heat Treatement in Steel Members?
Heat Treatment is the controlled heating and cooling of metals to alter their physical and mechanical properties without changing the product shape. Heat treatment is sometimes done inadvertently due to manufacturing processes that either heat or cool the metal such as welding or forming. Steels are heat treated for one of the following reasons:
Softening, Hardening, Material Modification

Which type of  Welding Codes used?
DIN 1910-100,ISO2553,ASME9,BSEN15614

What is the Root Gap For Groove Weld?
1/8” and 2mm

What is the Types of Fasteners?
Fasteners,Blind Fasteners ,Locking Fasteners,Lock Fasteners,Self-Locking Metal Fasteners,Drywall Hangers & Fasteners,Stud Welding Fasteners,T or Tee Fasteners,Rivets,Machine Screws,Anchor Bolts,Cap Screws,Eye Bolts,U Bolts,Sheet Metal Screws,Set Screws,Wood Screws,Lock Washers,Carriage Bolts,Flat Washers

Materials for Fasteners
ASTM A325,A490,A307
BS 4395,3962

What is the Standard Distance for Bolt to Bolt and Edge Distance
Bolt to Bolt Distance 1.5D and Edge Distance 3D

Difference between Galvanised and Primer
Galvanised=Material Finishing is Hot Dip Galvanised.
Primer = Material Finishing is Painting.

Codes For Steel Members
ASTM (American)        :W,M,S,HP(BEAM)
                                    C,MC(CHANNEL)  WT,MT  
BS (British)       :UB,UC,UBP,RSJ
                        C  SHS,RHS,CHS

Materials for Steel Members

MTO for Plate,pipe,rod,ring etc..

What is the Head Room Height?
2.1 Meter and 6”-9”

How many Types of Bracings
Vertical, Horizontal and Roof

Which Member Used for Bracings?
Single Angle,Single Channel,Box Channel,Star Angle,Bace to Back Angle, Bace to Back Channel,Tube,Beam

Standard Minimum and Maximum Angles for Bracing and Staircase.
Bracing : Minimum 20Degree Maximum 80Degree
Staircases :Minimum 31Degree Maximum 42Degree

What is Pipe Bracing?

Minimum No of Bolt Requirement for bracing
2 Bolts

Types of Vessel Supports

Types of Pipe Supports
Rigid supports & Hangers
Variable effort supports & Hangers
Constant effort supports & Hangers
Spring loaded sway braces
Dynamic restraints & Rigid struts
Snubbers & Shock absorbers
Anchor , Guide , Dummy leg ,Shoe

Why Platform Required?
Platforms are typically required to access valves, instruments, blinds, etc. on reactors, towers and furnaces.In general, platform elevations are determined by the items that require operation and maintenance. 

Standard Base Plate Details

How to Calculate Striffener Thickness in Beam to Beam Connection?
Stiffener Thickness Based at Connecting Beam Web Thickness

Which side take More Load in Beam Flange or Web?

Typical Handrail Standards

What is Wing Railings?
Roof Platform Handrails for Stack

Distance between Top rail and Mid Rail
1'-6” or 500

Standard Toe Plate size
75x6 mm or  3x1/4”

What is the Minimum and Maximum Handrail Post to post distance?
Minimum 1'-0”  Maximum 6'-0” or  min 300mm max 1.8Meter

What is Guard Railing?
guardrail, sometimes referred to as guide rail or railing, is a system designed to keep people or vehicles from (in most cases unintentionally) straying into dangerous or off-limits areas. A handrail is less restrictive than a guard rail and provides both support and the protective limitation of a boundary.

Typical Staircase Standards

What is the Minimum Distance for Intermediate Landing in Stair?
2'-6” or 750mm

What is the Purpose for Mobile Stair?

Typical Ladder Standards

Maximum ladder Running Length

 Ladder Rung Distance for Maximum
1'-0” or 300mm

Ladder Rungs dia
20mm or 3/4” dia

Uses  of safety gauge

Minimum ladder Width
min1'-6” of 450mm

Minimum Clereance for Top of Rung to TOG

Maximum Allowable Slope of Ladders from  Vertical
Minimum 75 deg  Maximum 90 deg

What is Shoulder Bolts?
Bolt With Attached Washer in Bolt Head

Minimum Platform width

Minimum walkway width
750mm or 2'-6”

Typical Grating,Checker Plate Standards

How to Mention Grate Orientatioon?

Flat bar in 2nd layer or Round bar in 1st layer Which one Take More Load in Grating?
Flat Bar

Fixing Detail of Grating With Beam or Channel
Tack weld or Clipped Joints

What is Temporary Platform  Supports?

Standard Stringer member size
C10 or  MC10

Standard Riser size and Tread Size
Riser:7” or 175mm
Trad:11” or 275mm

Minimum Stair Width

3'-0” or 900mm
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